충격시험

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작성자망치 조회 16회 작성일 2021-06-10 23:59:53 댓글 0

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샤르피 충격시험


이희수 : 알고리즘의 축복을 받을 게시물입니다

[플랜트교육] G Number Charpy V notch Impact Test 쉽게 이해하기~!!! 그룹 넘버와 인성테스트의 관계, 샤르피 저온 충격인성 테스트, 천이온도 DBTT

CHARPY IMPACT TESTING
20. Summary
20.1 A Charpy V-notch impact test is a dynamic test in
which a notched specimen is struck and broken by a single
blow in a specially designed testing machine. The measured
test values may be the energy absorbed, the percentage shear
fracture, the lateral expansion opposite the notch, or a combination
thereof.
20.2 Testing temperatures other than room (ambient) temperature
often are specified in product or general requirement
specifications (hereinafter referred to as the specification).
Although the testing temperature is sometimes related to the
expected service temperature, the two temperatures need not be
identical.
21. Significance and Use
21.1 Ductile vs. Brittle Behavior—Body-centered-cubic or
ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in behavior when
impact tested over a range of temperatures. At temperatures
above transition, impact specimens fracture by a ductile
(usually microvoid coalescence) mechanism, absorbing relatively
large amounts of energy. At lower temperatures, they
fracture in a brittle (usually cleavage) manner absorbing
appreciably less energy. Within the transition range, the fracture
will generally be a mixture of areas of ductile fracture and
brittle fracture.
21.2 The temperature range of the transition from one type
of behavior to the other varies according to the material being
tested. This transition behavior may be defined in various ways
for specification purposes.
21.2.1 The specification may require a minimum test result
for absorbed energy, fracture appearance, lateral expansion, or
a combination thereof, at a specified test temperature.
21.2.2 The specification may require the determination of
the transition temperature at which either the absorbed energy
or fracture appearance attains a specified level when testing is
performed over a range of temperatures. Alternatively the
specification may require the determination of the fracture
appearance transition temperature (FATTn) as the temperature
at which the required minimum percentage of shear fracture (n)
is obtained.

QW-171 NOTCH-TOUGHNESS TESTS — CHARPY
V-NOTCH
QW-171.1 General. Charpy V-notch impact tests shall
be made when required by referencing codes. Test procedures
and apparatus shall conform to the requirements of
the referencing code. When not specified by the referencing
code, the test procedures and apparatus shall conform
to the requirements of SA-370.
QW-171.2 Acceptance. The acceptance criteria shall
be in accordance with that Section specifying impact
requirements.

QW-171.3 Location and Orientation of Test Specimen.
The impact test specimen and notch location and orientation
shall be as given in the Section requiring such
tests.
When qualifying pipe in the 5G or 6G position, the
notch‐toughness specimens shall be removed from the
shaded portion of Figure QW-463.1(f).

충격시험(衝擊試驗, impact test)은 충격에 대해 재료가 저항하는 성질을 인성이라고 하며, 인성을 알아보는 시험이다. 충격시험 방법 중에 샤르피 충격 시험이 있다. 재료를 10mm정도 두께의 판으로 만들고 가운데에 작은 홈(Notch)을 판다. 시험장치에 시편을 설치하고 온도를 달리한 상태에서 해머로 충격을 가한다. 이를 통해 샤르피 흡수 에너지, 샤르피 충격치, 천이온도(transition temperature)를 알 수 있다. 대한민국에서는 KS B 0810 충격시험에 시험에 관한 자세한 사항을 정하고 있다.


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